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Chandrayaan - II

Updated: Jul 21, 2019

Chandrayaan 2 is an Indian lunar mission that will boldly go where no country has ever gone before — the Moon’s south polar region. The aim is to improve our understanding of the Moon, which could lead to discoveries that will benefit India and humanity as a whole. These insights and experiences will cause a paradigm shift in how lunar expeditions are approached for years to come, propelling further voyages into the farthest frontiers.


The Mission has 4 parts:

1. Launcher - GSLV MK-III

2. Orbiter

3. Lander - Vikram

4. Rover - Pragyan


GSLV MK-III


Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle MARK-III (GSLV M k-III) is a three-stage launch vehicle which is India’s most powerful launcher to date, and is capable of launching 4-tonne class of satellites to the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).

It's 3 stages are:

i. S200 Solid Rocket Boosters

ii. L110 Liquid Stage

iii. C25 Cryogenic Stage


  • Height: 43.43 m

  • Vehicle Diameter: 4.0 m

  • Heat Shield (Payload Fairing) Diameter: 5.0 m

  • Number of Stages: 3

  • Lift Off Mass: 640 tonnes







Orbiter


At the time of launch, the Chandrayaan 2 Orbiter will be capable of communicating with the Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) at Byalalu, as well as with the Vikram lander. The mission life of the Orbiter is one year, during which it will be placed in a 100 x 100 km lunar polar orbit.


  • Weight: 2,379 kg

  • Power: 1,000 W

  • Payloads: 8

  • Dimensions: 3.2 x 5.8 x 2.1 m

  • Mission Life: 1 year in lunar orbit


Payloads:

  1. Terrain Mapping Camera 2 (TMC 2)

  2. Chandrayaan 2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS)

  3. Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM)

  4. Orbiter High Resolution Camera (OHRC)

  5. Imaging IR Spectrometer (IIRS)

  6. Dual Frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar (DFSAR)

  7. Chandrayaan 2 Atmospheric Compositional Explorer 2 (CHACE 2)

  8. Dual Frequency Radio Science (DFRS) experiment



Lander - Vikram


Chandrayaan 2’s lander is named Vikram after Dr Vikram A Sarabhai, the Father of the Indian Space Programme. It is designed to function for one lunar day, which is equivalent to about 14 Earth days. Vikram has the capability to communicate with IDSN at Byalalu near Bangalore, as well as with the Orbiter and Pragyan rover.

The lander is designed to execute a soft landing on the lunar surface at a touchdown velocity of 2 metres per second.

  • Landing Site: High plain between two craters, Manzinus C and Simpelius N, at a latitude of about 70.9° South 22.7° East

  • Alternate Site: 67.7 ° South 18.4° West


  • Weight:1,471 kg

  • Power: 650 W

  • Payloads: 3

  • 1 passive experiment

  • Dimensions: 2.54 x 2 x 1.2 m

  • Mission Life: 1 lunar day


Vikram payloads

  1. Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA)

  2. Chandra's Surface Thermo-physical Experiment (ChaSTE)

  3. Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA))

Passive Experiment

  1. Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA)



Rover - Pragyan


Chandrayaan 2’s rover is a 6-wheeled robotic vehicle named Pragyan, which translates to ‘wisdom’ in Sanskrit. It can travel up to 500 m (0.5 km) at a speed of 1 centimetre per second, and leverages solar energy for its functioning. It can communicate with the lander.


  • Weight: 27 kg

  • Power: 50 W

  • Payloads: 2

  • Dimensions: 0.9 x 0.75 x 0.85 m

  • Mission Life: 1 lunar day


Pragyaan payloads

  1. Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS)

  2. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS)



The mission launch was rescheduled to 22nd July, 2019 at 2:43 p.m. from earlier launch date which was 15th July, 2019 at 2:54 a.m.



Cause of Reschedule


The ISRO Teams pinpointed the leak in the GSLV MK-III's cryogenic engine to a 'nipple joint' of Helium gas bottle that supplies pressure to fuel (liq. Hydrogen) and oxidizer (liq. Oxygen).


The Helium gas bottle has a capacity of 34 liters and it was to be pressured upto 350 bars before regulating the output to 50 bars. The leak was bringing the pressure down by 4 bars/minute.

Therefore, ISRO decided to practice abundant caution.



References:


https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/isro-pinpoints-chandrayaan-2-leak-to-nipple-joint-of-cryogenic-engine/articleshow/70241645.cms


https://www.isro.gov.in/chandrayaan2-home-0

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